Monday, May 25, 2020

A Personality Of Calvin Coolidge - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 510 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/08/12 Category Politics Essay Level High school Tags: Government Essay Did you like this example?   Throughout American History there have been presidents who have made promises in order to secure peoples vote. Many presidents break their promises or do not accomplish what they promised. Calvin Coolidge was not one of those Presidents. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Personality Of Calvin Coolidge" essay for you Create order Even though he obtained ?presidency by stepping up and doing the job of a Vice President and leading the Nation when the President itself was no longer living. Coolidge served a six year term (1923-1929) of presidency due to the fact that he had to finish the last two years remaining in Harding term, and was then re-elected for an additional four years after that, but decided not run again on the elections on 1929. Although Coolidge was a man of small talk he always made his point come across very clearly by establishing Economic, Domestic,   Foreign Policies as well as using the power to veto.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   President Coolidge was a Republican who believed in free enterprise and was in favor of a small government or minimal government intervention. During his Presidency on of his goals was to reduce taxes on people because he believed that   Collecting more taxes than is absolutely necessary is legalized robbery. In 1924 he signed the Revenue act of 1924 which stated exactly what Coolidge wanted, the reduction of tax rates on the citizens as well as the deflecting federal debt. Americans highly benefited from his Economic Policies. During the roaring twenties because now many americans had more time and more money to spend on themself, and they started to have a more lavish styles and costumes something that could have not been possible without Calvins   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In attempt to change the way African Americans were treated during this time, Coolidges effort to enforce the study of civil rights and proposed multiple anti-lynching laws that of course were not adapted by the people and that congress turned down . These laws were ahead of their time and had a very slight chance of getting approved. Mainly because during this time not many were comfortable believing that African Americans, or other minorities shared the same equal rights as the whites. One of his successful Domestic policies was the   Indian Citizen Act which granted American Indians the right to citizenship if born in the U.S or if they marry a natural American citizen rather than trying to make Americanized and destroyed American Indians culture. Calvin Coolidge gave the Americans Indians the privilege to be free while being able to practice and passed down their culture.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   During his presidency Calvin Coolidge did not state that The United States was an isolationist country. As matter of fact he wanted open borders with many foreign countries, especially China.   In efforts to expand trade between countries and to financially benefit from open trade. Calvin approved The white Act of 1928 which increased ship productions to potentially inflate the amount of import and exports in The United States. Having this open trade policy created some problems with neighboring countries. Coolidge was concern with the secureness of American businesses and war against Mexico was rumored. His concern was that

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Project Management - Constraints - 1926 Words

Project Mangement - Constraints By Jasmeet Prakash A project has many factors which determine its level of manageability and success. These factors can be considered constraints which may cause delays or difficulties. The most important criteria for a balanced project is often quoted as the careful organisation of these constraints. Constraint reducing techniques are used to better equip a Project Manager for success. These techniques are accomplished through the use of practical guides or methods, improving communication and personal skill of the Manager. A constraint is a limitation or a restriction. This is anything which can delay the project. In order to figure out how to avoid constraints, it is important to first establish†¦show more content†¦This can be done through an Analytical Hierarchy Process giving each criteria a priority score. For example, On a building project, a Manager will prioritise laying a concrete foundation before the need to bring roofing tiles onsite because the roof cannot be constructed until the walls are put up, and that can only occur after the bottom floor is complete. Other more specific planning models have been made to help assist the efficiency of project management, two well known models are PMBOK (A Guide to the Project Management Body Of Knowledge) and PRINCE2 (Projects IN Controlled Environments). PMBOK is a suggested way of approaching each stage of a project working as a guide where as PRINCE2 goes through the different phases of any given project, making it a methodology. These mod els are flexible and realistic, which make them easy to use. A guide is a suggested approach, so in any project case, it can roughly apply. It is a guide because it helps plan the project which can be referred to and may point out things which may have been overlooked and therefore help eliminate the constraints which may not have been thought of. A methodology is a specific structure. PRINCE2 starts from Starting up a project to Closing a project. An example of when this is used to restrict constraints is if a Manager starts on a project immediatley after it is given and does not properly take the time in planning on how it will be completed (short term planning). A longShow MoreRelatedProject Management : The Time Constraint3014 Words   |  13 PagesAbstract There are three major constraints of Project Management: the Time constraint, the Cost constraint and the Scope/Quality constraint. As the name suggests, the Time constraint refers to the time available for the completion of the project, Cost constraint refers to the allocated budget and the Scope constraint refers to the final expected outcome. For a construction project, it is virtually impossible to achieve the best of all worlds, i.e., cheapest, fastest and of the desired quality. DueRead MoreProject Management - Constraints1932 Words   |  8 PagesProject Mangement - Constraints By Jasmeet Prakash A project has many factors which determine its level of manageability and success. These factors can be considered constraints which may cause delays or difficulties. The most important criteria for a balanced project is often quoted as the careful organisation of these constraints. Constraint reducing techniques are used to better equip a Project Manager for success. These techniques are accomplished through the use of practical guides or methodsRead MoreConstraints Management Project ( Surgical Medical Packs )2087 Words   |  9 PagesMGT 333 Constraints Management Project (Surgical Medical Packs) 1. Detailed description The custom surgical packs is a process of assembling, sterilizing, packaging and delivering surgical packs for scheduled surgical procedures in hospitals. This is a process that is facilitated by the client hospitals coordinating with their approved manufacturers of the surgical tools, instruments and linen to deliver their pre-approved list of selected items of their choice and use in a specific surgical procedureRead MorePerformance1552 Words   |  7 PagesTHE MEANING OF PROJECT: A project is a unique venture with specific start and end dates. This is different from an ongoing task that doesnt have an end date. Projects often involve different parts of an organization. Constraints on project include cost, schedule, resources, and quality. There is a give and take between these items i.e. you cant have it all. Usually projects are divisible into stages or phases each with their own set of priorities and goals. A project is an important and carefullyRead MoreTheory Of Constraint Technique Is The Elimination Of Idle Time1716 Words   |  7 Pages Another Theory of Constraint technique is the elimination of idle time. For whatever reason, idle time is also present in bottleneck resources. For instance, all employees may have a break at the same time leading to no performance during the bottleneck process. Short breaks may have a high opportunity costs since the bottleneck have a constraint effect on the entire plant output. Thus, elimination of such idle time may improve a factory s output. As a TOC technique, scheduling and sequencingRead MoreReasons For Software Project Failure Essay1131 Words   |  5 Pagesbillion, an increase of 4.8 over 2012. Many companies invest into innovative IT projects with the intention to boost new opportunities for their businesses, increase their competitiveness in the market. It implies there are millions of small and big software projects all over the world. But researches show that most of the software projects are not successful indicating huge money loss for economies. In fact failed proj ect is more than just loss of money, it’s a lost opportunities, damaged image andRead MoreDetails on the EPC Process and Approach849 Words   |  3 Pagesaccording to EPC project phases. It organises the deliverables of the project scope with cost and schedule. Each WBS is assigned to the individual representative with work packages for their estimating and performance of the tasks. Due to the limitation of this report, this section is focused only on one of the work break structure such as DCS engineering as an example which can be imitated to the other work packages and tasks. The project scheduling is analyzed with theory of constraints and CCPM comparingRead MoreCase Study Management : Master Of Project Management Essay1349 Words   |  6 PagesName : Project management Program : MASTER OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Semester : ONE/ MAY SEMESTER 2015 Assignment : ORGANIZATIONAL AND BUSINESS MANAGEMEN Facilitator : ISMAIL ALOW Date due : 02/07/2015 Submission Date : 29/08/2015 Table of Contents 2 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Literature Review 5 2.1 Schedule 5 2.2 Cost 6 3.3 Scope 6 3.0 Discussion of Triple Constraints 7 4.0 Discussion on execution of the three elements by Project ManagerRead MoreThe Relationships Between Scope Definition and Time Management1358 Words   |  6 PagesRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCOPE DEFINITION AND TIME The Relationships Between Scope Definition and Time Management The relationships between scope definition and time management have as many similarities as they do differences. Scope definition basically, is knowing exactly what needs to be accomplished. This is the first step in accurately forecasting and controlling cost and schedule, which ties into time management. Using quantity surveys performed on a periodic basis are the foundation of determining whatRead MoreProject Management : Projects Management902 Words   |  4 PagesProject Management Project Management. What does the words Project Management mean and what are the steps to managing a great project. If we break down the two words Project Management it is defined on dictionary.com as â€Å"The process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling the production of a system†. As shown in the website Project Insight there are multiple different steps in the project management roll such as project scope, life cycle, objectives, assumptions, constraints

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bipolar Disorder A Mental Illness - 802 Words

Bipolar disorder is known to be a mental illness. A mental illness can be described as a number of things. When talking about bipolar disorder being a mental illness it is described as lacking certain area in the brain. There are two stages of bipolar disorders, Type one and Type two. Type one is more severe than type two. Bipolar disorders began approximately around in the nineteenth century. Bipolar disorder was founded and introduced by both Jean-Pierre Falret a French psychiatrist and Emil Kraepein a German psychiatrist. Jean-Pierre which founded the mental disorder and presented it and Emil Kraepein which modified it. Between the both of them they came up with a plan and proposed the idea in France. As time has went on and technology has improved there has been a dramatic change in research and findings on bipolar disorder. Type one is also well known as manic-depressive disorder. When diagnosed with type one you are expected to have at least one episode (webMD, 2015). Episodes which includes acting out, mood swings, outbursts, having a higher sex drive, feeling under pressure, spending money often, and most importantly substance abuse (webMD, 2015). Another form of having an episode can involve being depressed (webMD, 2015). The key term associated with bipolar disorder is referred to (manic) comes from depression. It is said that people who suffer from type one bipolar disorder is capable of living a normal life. Approximately 2.5 percent of people in the UnitedShow MoreRelatedBipolar Disorder And Mental Illness2097 Words   |  9 PagesBipolar disorder, also called manic depression, is a systemic disorder that affects a person both mentally and physically. While talking about diseases and disorders may be hard for some, it is vital that we do in order to have an understanding of them. Bipolar disord er affects so many people in the world that it is highly likely that you probably know someone suffering from it. It is a disorder that we are still making discoveries about each and everyday, and will continue to do so in order to satisfyRead MoreBipolar Disorder And Mental Illness1497 Words   |  6 PagesThis disorder where a persons’ mood changes without any triggering event is called Bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a disorder where the affected person experiences periods of mania alternating with periods of depression, usually interspersed with relatively long intervals of normal mood. (Dictionary.com) Mania is a mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions, and over activity. Depression is a feeling of severe despondency and dejection. It is a disorder thatRead MoreBipolar Disorder Is A Serious Mental Illness803 Words   |  4 PagesBipolar Disorder is a serious mental illness that limits normal functioning and range of moods. Majo r indicators that someone may be suffering with Bipolar Disorder are mood swings ranging from severe mania to severe depression. According to the DSM-5 (2013), the Disorder is split into two categories based on severity of the manic state. While Bipolar I disorder is characterized by one or more manic episodes or mixed episodes and one or more major depressive episodes; Bipolar II disorder is diagnosedRead MoreBipolar Disorder Is A Form Of Mental Illness Essay2057 Words   |  9 Pages What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorder and also known as manic-depressive disorder or manic depression is a form of mental illness. A person affected by bipolar disorder has had at least one manic episode in his or her life. A manic episode is a period of abnormally elevated mood swings and high energy, accompanied by abnormal behavior that disrupts life. Most people with bipolar disorder also suffer from episodes of depression. Often, there is a pattern between mania and depression. ThisRead MoreBipolar Disorder : A Serious Mental Illness980 Words   |  4 PagesBipolar Disorder I decided to do my research paper on Bipolar Disorder. The reason I chose to do my paper on Bipolar disorder is because it is a serious mental illness. Those with bipolar disorder often describe their experience as an emotional roller coaster. Going up and down between strong emotions can keep a person from having anything approaching a normal life. The emotions of a persons’ behavior with bipolar disorder experience as beyond ones control. This condition is exhausting not only forRead MoreBipolar Disorder : A Mental Illness Caused By A Person s Brain1653 Words   |  7 Pages Bipolar disorder is a mental illness caused by a chemical imbalance in a person’s brain. Bipolar disorder can causes mood swings that can be both manic and or hypomanic, changes in sleep patterns, energy and overall behavior of a person. An individual’s environment can either hinder or aid in coping with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A manic episode lasts for at least one week and consist of increased goal-oriented energy, along with overly confident and excited feelings. These feelingsRead MoreMental Illness : Bipolar Disorder And The Opportunity For Health Improvement Through The Promotion Of Positive Mental Health1483 Words   |  6 PagesA psychological disorder is defined as â€Å"a condition in which a person s thoughts, feelings, or behavior are thought to be in some way dysfunctional† (Sullivan, 2009, p. 415). One such mental illness is Bipolar Disorder (BD) formally know as manic depression. Individuals suffering from BD experience â€Å"mood swings that alternate between periods of elevated or euphoric mood (manic episodes) and periods of depression† (Sullivan, 2009, p. 50). In the following case study, we will examine the case of ScoterRead MoreThe Effects Of Bipolar Disorder On Individuals, Families And Society1109 Words   |  5 PagesMental illness is a leading cause of disability in Canada. All Canadians are likely to be indirectly affected through a mental illness in a family, friend or colleague. Statistics showed that 1 in 5 Canadians experiences a mental health or addiction problem. (Mental Illness and Addictions: Facts and Statistics, n.d.). This report will be focusing on one of the more common mental illness — bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a serious medical condition thatRead MoreThe Effects Of Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome1659 Words   |  7 Pagesof grown folks business† but, what if you were finally grown enough to join the conversation. While getting into a deep conversation with an old friend about your goods and your bads. You are told by the expert that mental illness for Caucasian people is schizophrenia and mental illness for African American people is Bipolarism. This shocks you because you never heard of this before. Then everything starts to make sense why in particular some of us act, talk, think the way we do. Is the problems inRead MoreThe Stigma Associated With Bipolar Disorder1448 Words   |  6 PagesLiving with Bipolar Disorder The stigma associated with bipolar disorder is unacceptable. The purpose of this paper is to improve the readers ability to understand what bipolar disorder is and how being diagnosed with this disorder affects all facets of daily living. Family, friends and associates of individuals with bipolar disorder are often affected as well. As a result of the stigma associated with the disorder, the effects remain: often multiplied by individuals that have a limited understanding

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Micro Environmental Factors - A Sample Report on Toyota Prius

Question: Describe micro environmental factors. Answer: Micro environmental factors are integrated and incorporated within the business prospects in of the companies and these are developed and demonstrated within the particular product orientation and company and in this case, the Toyota Prius is taken as the selected car for understanding the Australian Market. The micro environmental factors depicts the internal sources and internal strengths of the company which are required to understand and depict the business process and business definition (Cravens and Piercy, 2008). For introduction of the new product like Hybrid cars to the markets, proper business attention and integration is to be developed and modified within the business case. The micro environmental factors are discussed here like: Are You Daunted by the Thought of Due Assignments? Avail Our Services and Receive Assignment Help from Experts. Employees: Employees are the base of the organization and in Toyota Australia, there is formal communication structure being placed and ensured to provide the feedback for the same. In response to the present business scenario, the employees are well informed and motivated for the variety of services and products which are communicated to them for being the part of effective team and group within the company. As the Prius itself is the innovative and creative product, the employees are motivated and rewarded for further business and proposition. Resources: The company Toyota has also considered the availability of resources and thus the company has come up with manufacturing and assembling unit within the country where from there is also export made to the New Zealand and other neighbour geographical regions. There are tangible and intangible resources both needed and those are like power, workforce, knowledge, raw material, metal, fabrics and cotton etc which are important and easily available in the Australian market. Shareholders: The shareholders are the people who are responsible for the funding and they are to be pleased with the perfect attention to the different attribution to the business and profit making scenario which are incorporated within the business and the process engagement of the company (De Haan, Mueller and Peters, 2006). There should be sufficient and effective process, operations and marketing coordination given to the company and the consumers with respect to the business and revenue generations and those are to be improved with the business process scenario within the company Toyota. Dealers and suppliers: The dealers and the suppliers are presented within the companys success and business integration and there are subsequent attention given to them in respect to attain the proper market share. There are specialised formal structures to place and depict the suppliers and dealers within the organizational system and those people are also coordinated with meetings and seminars to ensure the correct attention and understanding of the business policies and rules. There is also regular suppliers and dealers interaction with the company and the consumers to understand and predict the needs accordingly. Consumer perception and behaviour about Toyota Prius: The company Toyota is at present the largest car manufacturer and seller in the world and it has different types of products to cater into different segments of the consumers. The company was not initially prepared for the hybrid cars and there were only emphasis on the expansion to the different large and mid range vehicles to cater into the mass market in EU countries and US (Sandberg, 2012). With the advent of environmental and sustainability campaigns and the increased value of environmental programs and risk triggered the company to innovate and develop the cars which are more eco friendly and having less environmental impact. The Toyota Prius was the first hybrid car to be entered in the Australian market and the company has also indicated the different prospects like less fuel emission and less environmental impacts. As stated earlier, the Prius was developed within the Hybrid segment of cars which are more targeted to the premium class of the consumers (Beliveau, 2010). The c onsumers were not initially accepting the car due to new and changed features and with price attached. Later the Prius became a status and statement to the others. The consumers are happier to buy Prius due to the innovative and distinct designs and there are also the pricing strategies which helped the company to sell and present the Toyota Prius in the appropriate market and eager consumers. The Australian consumer are also having different options for Hybrid cars like Honda Civic, Toyota Cambry etc but the distinctive feature and design with the performance in the presented market and environmental aspects and those are to be also required to make the consumers satisfied with the correct attention to the new values and offerings of the Toyota Prius in the Australian market (Kley, Lerch and Dallinger, 2011). The consumers Status and recognition need is successfully fulfilled within the Toyota Prius and thus there is more market share and market penetration with the related segment of the hybrid cars. The consumers have the options to choose the less expensive alternatives to the higher models from BMW, Mercedes or Audi in the market and those are helping the company to maintain the market share. Marketing Mix: The marketing Mix is a combination of different marketing activities and samples and those are also considered to produce the correct attention towards the required market demand and consumers expectation. The different variables are like product, price, place and promotion (Kotler, 2012). Product: The product here is Toyota Prius which is a Hybrid car. Hybrid technology is used in vehicles to supplement the conventional petrol engine with electric battery and motor. The engine is then powered with more efficiency and less fuel consumption with lower environmental impacts by the vehicle and this also helped to control and integrate with more power and performance within larger cars with less erosion and fuel consumption (Graham-Rowe et al., 2012). The product is also an supplement to the higher fuel like petrol pricing and thus the cars can be integrated within the two aspects also. The Toyota Prius has different models and variants at present in Australia and those are like Prius C or V class in the market. Price: The company Toyota has not introduced the car with Scheming pricing for getting the car more profit and then lowering the price as per the market is engaged with competitor. The company has integrated with penetration pricing and those are relevant to entre in the new market with the new product which was not perceived before (Beliveau, 2010). This pricing strategy helped the company Toyota to retain and maintain the market share and thus in present market statistics, more than 50% of the hybrid market segment is considered and developed within the Toyota Prius. The pricing of Toyota Prius though is higher than the general engine cars and it is also regarded as the substitute to the higher end cars in Australia like BMW, Audi, Mazda, Mercedes etc. Promotion: The promotional campaign in the Australia and other market is considered with different objectives and those are to be also engaged with different attention to the marketing mix and marketing orientations within the company. In that respect, the initial promotional activities were done on the environmental aspects and then the promotional activities were done to communicate the consumer with the advantages for the practical and day to day transportation options (Graham-Rowe et al., 2012). The company has tried to integrate with the social media, digital and online promotional campaigns and there were e-brochures presented within the market to communicate with the present marketing strategies. The later promotional campaigns also tried to depict the utility of the car with size and comfort and those are to be also developed in order to attract more consumers within the market. Place: The company has adopted dealers and suppliers throughout Australia and there are almost 210 dealers, with 277 outlets and other Lexus dealers located within the Australian Subcontinent with almost 13000 people employed and integrated within the business. The company has also tried to incorporate the formal structure and proceeding within the dealer relationship to maintain the proper and adequate business considerations in Australia. Recommendation: The company has taken the decisions to close the production in Australia within the year 2017. This is mainly to achieve the long term sustainability in Australia and those are to be effective from the management decisions on strategic and business propositions. Toyota Prius is the market leader in the hybrid car segment and those are to be maintained with more product development and innovative strategies integrated within the business. The company should look for more stable and sustainable market and those can be achieved by proper market research. The Toyota Prius can be also presented to the developing countries for establishing a new market. There can be also new product life cycle introduced within the Toyota Prius by modification and product development done. Conclusion: From the above discussed project and understanding, it can be ensured that the Toyota Prius is the market leader in Australian hybrid market and that is to be also maintained by the company for attaining proper direction to the future business proposition. The company has implied the perfect marketing strategies for Toyota Prius and those have ensured the future proposition to the market and the companys probable activity to be more informed and sustainable in Australia. References: Graham-Rowe, E., Gardner, B., Abraham, C., Skippon, S., Dittmar, H., Hutchins, R., Stannard, J. (2012). Mainstream consumers driving plug-in battery-electric and plug-in hybrid electric cars: A qualitative analysis of responses and evaluations.Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice,46(1), 140-153. Kley, F., Lerch, C., Dallinger, D. (2011). New business models for electric carsA holistic approach.Energy Policy,39(6), 3392-3403. Beliveau, M. (2010).A study on hybrid cars: Environmental effects and consumer habits(Doctoral dissertation, Worcester Polytechnic Institute). Sandberg, U. (2012). Adding noise to quiet electric and hybrid vehicles: an electric issue.Acoustics Australia,40(3). De Haan, P., Mueller, M. G., Peters, A. (2006). Does the hybrid Toyota Prius lead to rebound effects? Analysis of size and number of cars previously owned by Swiss Prius buyers.Ecological Economics,58(3), 592-605. Cravens, D., Piercy, N. F. (2008).Strategic marketing. McGraw-Hill Irwin. Kotler, P. (2012). Marketing Management, millenium edition: Custom Edition for University of Phoenix. Lancaster, G., Massingham, L. (2010).Essentials of marketing management. Routledge.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Comparison of 2 davids essays

Comparison of 2 davids essays The greatest artist has no conception which a single block of marble does not potentially contain within its mass, but only a hand obedient to the mind can penetrate to this image. Michelangelo describes in the above quote what it is like to carve a likeness of a person out of a large block of marble. As we know from seeing his work, he did an excellent job with this task. Bernini did just as fine a job on his, but in a much different way as you will see in the following pages. Michelangelo was born on March 6, 1475, in Caprese, Italy, a tiny village, owned by the nearby city-state of Florence. His father was the mayor. He attended school in Florence, but he was preoccupied by art. When he was 13, his father agreed to apprentice him to some well-known painters in Florence. Michelangelo was unsatisfied with these artists, because they would not teach him their artistic secrets. He went to work under another sculptor hired by Lorenzo de Medici. When Michelangelo was 21, he went to Rome, where he was commissioned to carve a group of marble statues showing the Virgin Mary supporting the dead Christ on her knees. His sculpture was called Madonna Della Pieta, and it made Michelangelo famous. A few years later, in 1501, he accepted a commission for a statue of David. He took on the challenge of carving this beautiful work out of a huge oblong chunk of pure white unflawed Carrara marble some 18 feet high and weighing several tons - that had been badly block out and then abandoned by an earlier sculptor (Coughlan 85). This piece had always fascinated Michelangelo, but neither he, nor anyone else, could think of what to carve from it, until now (Coughlan 85). Thus began a new era in art, the High Renaissance. He began carving this statue for the city of Florence. It would become a symbol of this city, a city willing to take on all comers in defense of its liberty (Coughlan 91). The st...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Programable logic controllers (PLC) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Programable logic controllers (PLC) - Essay Example On its site, Wikipedia says a PLC is used for the automation of electromechanical processes for example controlling factory machinery or running amusement rides. It says that its function is unlike a computer that is built for a general purpose, and that it is designed to accommodate multiple inputs and output arrangements, resistant to vibrations, impact or temperature changes. The controlling programs are generally stored in a non-volatile memory as these controllers operate in different kinds of environment, fitted into machines where the controlling program must be kept stable at all times. They are designed for real-time use and are often subjected to extreme environments where it cannot afford to malfunction; its circuitry keeps a check on multiple sensor inputs which control the output actuators, for example, solenoids, lights and valves (Blacharski, 2003). The first Programmable Logic Controller to be developed was by General Motors in 1968 when its Hydramatic Division wanted to counter the soaring costs involved in the existing inflexible relay-controlled systems. The starting PLCs had relay functionality, substituting the traditional hard-wired relay logic which used electrically run devices to mechanically switch circuits. They offered a lot of advantage as they were far easier to use in an industry; the installation wasn’t tough, they needed less space and they were re-usable. The benefit of PLCs quickly caught on to other businesses like food, beverage and manufacturing and by 1971, they were providing relay replacement which was the first step to contr ol automation (Bryan and Bryan 1997, 16-18). The CPU, consisting of the processor, memory system and the power supply runs all PLC activities. The I/O system is physically connected to devices used in the control of a process or machine and its interface provides the connection between the CPU, the information providers